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In carry-over models, the effect of a marketing mix variable is assumed to last beyond a single time period (i.e., a lagged effect).[1] Hanssens' 2011 MASB white paper describes the phenomenon: "Carry-over effects reflect a delayed buyer response to advertising. Carry-over is not fundamentally different from immediate response; it is simply the result of 'letting the dust settle'—a time shift in impact."[2]


  1. ^ American Marketing Association. AMA Dictionary.
  2. ^ Hanssens, Dominique. "What Is Known About the Long-Term Impact of Advertising." MASB Practitioner Paper. February 2011. <>

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