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(sometimes referred to as a
) is a
technique for discovering the associations
have between specific
attributes and more general end states or consequences
"According to the
Means End Chain
, there is a hierarchy of consumer perceptions and product
that ranges from attributes (A) to consumption consequences (C) to personal values (V), as follows:
attributes—At the top level of this hierarchy, attributes are most recognizable by individuals. Individuals recognize the attributes of a product or system easily. For example, “I like this car, because it is a convertible.”
consequences—In turn, the attributes have consequences for the individual. For example, the convertible makes its driver feel young and free. Each attribute may have one or more consequences for any given individual.
core values—Finally, each consequence is linked to a core value of the person’s life. For example, the sense of youth makes that driver feel attractive."
American Marketing Association.
Laddering: A Research Interview Technique for Uncovering Core Values.
UXmatters. July 6, 2009. <
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